What is 4K Television?
In simple terms, 4K is a term used to signify resolution, or clarity of an image. 4K stands for 4,000, which roughly denotes the number of pixels horizontally.
Just to add to the confusion, there are two broad classes of 4K:
- For Cinema: 4096 horizontal pixels
- For television: 3840 horizontal pixels
Why on earth would we need two standards? It’s a long story, but suffice to say that movies were scanned to 2K (2048 pixels) before 4K, so the number they chose was twice that, which is 4096.
Television, on the other hand, has no 2K, and probably never will. Instead, it has 1920×1080, what we call High-definition, or HDTV. Twice 1920 is 3840.
To avoid further confusion, we’ll stick to these terms:
- 4K Cinema: To mean 4K cinema 4096
- Ultra HD: To mean 4K television 3840
- 4K: to mean both, they’re not too far off you know – 99% of the world won’t be able to tell the difference. The rest are hawks.
The idea is to bring the best possible clarity to your home. See the image above? 4K is marketed to the masses as having so much resolution that it feels like you’re looking out the window into another world.
Where can I buy a 4K television?
Hold on for a second! There are three fundamental ways in which you can watch 4k:
- 4K Flat Panel
- 4K Projector
Let’s look at upscaling. Upscaling is what happens when standard definition or high definition content is blown up to make it look like 4K. This is similar to how a photo can be blown up and be printed on a billboard. Is this cool?
Let’s say you take an HD photograph (HD is 2MP only, mind you) of a street and you want to read the number plate of a car far in the distance. You try to zoom in, but it’s not clear enough. A 4K image (roughly 8 MP, 4 times the resolution) would have been perfect. Some nut tries to upscale the HD image to 4K size – will that make it any better? Of course not. Who’s he trying to con?
The algorithm that does the upscaling (called resampling or interpolation) isn’t that dumb, it has a few neat tricks to increase sharpness and contrast so you ‘feel’ a difference. But it still won’t show you the numbers on the plate if it’s too fuzzy to make out in the original image.
One device that upscales to 4K right now is the Sony BDPS790 3D Blu-ray Player
A projector is a neat way to watch television. One of the great advantages it has over flat panels is that the size of the display can be changed somewhat. 4K projectors work similarly to their bigger brethren used in cinema halls, the major difference being they don’t have the power
One 4K projector currently available is the Sony VPL-VW1000ES 4K Home Theater Projector
This is so 2013. Here’s a quick list of some Ultra HD televisions:
- JVC PS-840UD – 84 inch – $20,000
- LG 84LM9600 – 84 inch – $20,000
- Sony XBR-84X900A – 65 inch – $25,000
- Sharp PN-K321 – 32 inch – $5,500
What should you look for in a 4K panel? Simple, just look for whatever it is you’re looking for in an HD panel, with resolution being the only difference. Consumer panels use HDMI to get their video, while professional grade panels will have DisplayPort or 3G-SDI.
If you’re looking to monitor 4K professionally, read What’s the best way to monitor video: DVI, HDMI, SDI or Displayport?
A 4K professional grading monitor will also need a color gamut suitable to Rec. 709 (for television) or P3/XYZ (for cinema). A professional-grade plasma like this one from Panasonic runs up to $500,000. You could buy a Rolls Royce Ghost, and a mansion to park it in, for that price. Or, you could buy the television and watch a Rolls Royce on screen for $500,000. We’ve all got priorities, right?
What extra devices do I need to watch 4K television?
I’ve already mentioned the blu-ray player that upscales to 4K. But you want true 4K, the real thing, eh? There are two big names currently on the market: Sony and Red. The Sony 4K Player currently comes with their 4K TV:
On the other hand, the real exciting prospect is the standalone 4K player that Red has introduced, called the Redray:
Other than the relatively ‘cheap’ price tag of $1,450, why is Redray special? Take a look:
- It can go up to 4096 × 2160 pixels, 2D or 3D, at a maximum of 60fps, in both Cinema (DCI) and Ultra HD
- It can display Y’CbCr 12-bit 4:2:2 or RGB 8-bit 4:4:4 in Rec. 709
- It has tri-level genlock
- It has a network based playback system, running on ethernet
- It has 7.1 channel 24-bit audio sampled at 48 KHz
- It has an internal storage capacity of 1TB
Is there a negative? Yes, as in all things Red. You’ll need to convert your HD or 4K content to REDRAY compatible .RED files using proprietary software like REDCINE-X PRO and the RRENCODE plugin. Oh, it’s not really a consumer device, is it? But for the multi-millionaire perfectionist, where’s the fun if you can’t transcode your own 4K content, eh? Please invite me to your transcode party.
If you want to watch 4K content from your computer, you could try something like the Blackmagic DeckLink 4K Extreme
Finally, if you want a 4K AV Receiver solution, check out the Sony STR-DA5800ES 9.2 Channel 4K AV Receiver
I’ve got it at home! What do I watch on it?
There are no disks or television networks that supply 4K content (at least where humans live), so you’re stuck with what the manufacturer gives you (like a few lousy movies) or your own content (your own warts and wrinkles).
Will we see mainstream 4K content anytime soon? Not likely. The biggest bottleneck is bandwidth. The world doesn’t have the broadcast infrastructure. 75% of the world still runs on standard definition, so we’re a long way off. Check these points out:
- A DVD has a maximum data rate of 9.8 Mbps, typically 9 Mbps. DVDs are standard definition.
- A Blu-ray has a maximum data rate of 40 Mbps, and blu-rays are high-definition 1080p. This is roughly 4 times the data rate for DVDs, which is proportionate to the 4x increase in resolution.
- If the same logic (quality) is applicable to 4K television, it would need a data rate of 160 Mbps (20 MB/s). The Redray tops out at about 2.5 MB/s. That’s a quality drop of 87%!
- Youtube shows 1080p content at a data rate of 8 Mbps, or 1 MB/s. At 4K, the Youtube ‘standard’ demands at least 4 MB/s.
Of course, the manufacturers will try to convince you through every press release and advertisement that this low data rate is good enough. If you’re paying $30,000 for a 4K setup, will you be happy with less-than-internet-quality video?
Where do I sit to get the best view?
No, you can’t press your face against your TV, even if they claim it feels like you’re watching content through a window.
As I’ve explained in Resolution of the Human Eye and External Monitoring, every monitor has a minimum and maximum distance where you can make use of its resolution. Here’s an excerpt from that article:
If you’re watching 4K on a 42″ monitor, the ideal distance is at about 2.5 feet (that close?). If you sit back to about 6 feet, you’ve wasted your money. You could have the same feel with a 1080p monitor.
Oh oh. That’s why 4K monitors are bigger than their HDTV counterparts. If they’re small they are useless.
At 65 inches, an average viewer will need to be about 5 feet away, while one with excellent vision can get the same result at 13 feet.
At 85 inches, it’s 7 feet for us, and 17 feet for fighter pilots or hawks.
What if your couch is 10 feet away? At that distance a 65″ monitor at HDTV is what you’ll be getting, so why not get a 65″ HDTV for 1/10th the price? Check it out next time you’re at an electronics store and compare them both with your own eyes, at the distance you’ll be watching from at home.
What 4K does do is let you get closer. With a 65″ 1080p HDTV, you have to sit back to about 10 feet. Any closer and you’ll start to see the pixels. 4K let’s you get closer, to about 5 feet. At 85″, you can sit at 7 feet, but no closer. This will approximate the viewing experience one gets with 4K DCI cinema, at least where imagery is concerned.
4K is definitely an exciting technology, but one that brings the resolution of the eye into focus. The numbers I’ve given are theoretical numbers when all things are perfect. In the real world, the resolution of a video decreases somewhat like this:
- 33% in camera due to debayering
- 33% of what’s left in sampling, chroma sampling, first compression and losses due to ‘math’
- 33% of what’s left due to recompression for the web or television broadcast
Your 4K television, ideally 3840 x 2160, is 1920×1080 anyway. Yikes. If you still want to spend something like $25,000 on 4K for your home, please support wolfcrow and buy from the Amazon 4K Store